1. Margot’s project “Actions speak louder than words”

The Presentation: Her digital narrative project is about producing a game having many players to compete with each other by using their power and personal goals. During Margot’s presentation, she elaborated the key messages of how her game will look like and this really impressed me with her creativity. However, the less incorporation of technical terms during the presentation might be able to improve her pitching in the future. I am struggling in trying to understand some technical words for instance ‘Javascript’ and ‘system of alliance’ since I am not a technician nor a game player. Thus, Margot should consider reducing some heavy terms, which might result in greater audience understanding and also minimize the confusion for the next presentation.


The proposed digital narrative: The idea of producing the multiplayers game is interesting and possibly achievable. I noticed one major issue with regard to game designing. This project might require Margot to spend lots of time on interface and the whole content. My suggestion before starting to write up the project proposal, Margot might test her ideas with game lovers. Given the fact that I do not like playing online games, Margot might briefly discuss with our classmates like Stella and Lisa, who are addicted to games and also specialising in picking up games to play. They might be able to give some more inputs in terms of content and the way her game should be designed to fulfil the target audience’s needs.

Besides, I am wondering how the game will be interacted by the players and what are the processes of competing with other opponents in the game especially designing the ending. Making players becomes addicted or undertake the enjoyment are also essential during game development, and this might be an idea for Margot to think. Some games are produced, but could not attract players since its aesthetic or ideology do not match the player’s expectation and it might be difficult to play.

  1. Mona’s project What if one day there is no more infant formula for ‘your’ baby?”

The Presentation: Mona has explained her project format clearly based on her narrative and she will produce a web documentary portraying the Daigou issue demanding Chinese mothers to fervently support local products and the government to hold accountability. I like the fact that Mona has brought up a few examples of the projects that can provide her with some sorts of ideas for production design like Klynt. From my perspective, Mona should have arranged the slides presentation carefully, the fonts and images were not well organised, this results in less attraction of the material projecting on the screen.


The proposed digital narrative: I do like the idea of producing the web documentary to make a social impact due to the fact that this project will be beneficial to enhance the local products.  However, I am a bit confused with the content. Based on my understanding from the pitching is that there are many agencies buying infant formulas from Australia and selling back to China, and this has reduced the local infant formulas demand. Therefore, Mona wants to produce a web documentary explaining the crisis and impacts of the reduction of local formulas due to overloaded imported formula milk. Mona might also have to look at a different perspective by focusing on the quality of the local formula. Chinese mothers, who can afford buying imported milk from Australia, might rely on the high-quality products rather than the domestic one. If there is an evidence indicating that the quality of local infant formulas is as good as the Australia’s, this project will become more interesting. I suggest Mona to search more detailed information and data of this controversial problem because it is sensitive and needs to have a clear elaboration. She can access the current news following this link. 

In terms of format and medium for this project, it would be nice if Mona can produce a viral video telling the risks of using Daigou service and products (there should be reports or studies). Chinese mothers tends to highly value Australia’s products owing to their peer and society influence, but how to change this perception? Thus, the viral video incorporating funny content with educational messages about local infant formulas might be effective to change Chinese’s perception and also request the local government to intervene. The more reach of the viral video on social media, the more influential the video is. This might quickly make a positive change as Mona’s goal.

  1. Shenna’s project “Samsara”

The presentation: Shena delivered the plan of her project with a well-designed, but she should have used eyes contact while presenting and her voice should be clearer and louder. Shena would like to produce a Role-Playing game (RPG) that is about a character using a mysterious book to rescue her close friend from the car accident. This kind of interactive game allows players to choose options differently in order to set the endings.

The proposed digital narrative:  The content of Shena’s project appears to be amazing to me by having a precise story line. I would like to know her project target audience and the significant of the project. It sounds to me that the project is more likely to attract female players rather than male. The integration of male character in the game might be able to expand the target audience and Shena can possibly incorporate other characters who challenge the main character in helping her friends. It is like the turning point of the story.


Regardless of her content development, I am wondering how will Shena design the game? whether or not, it can be played by multiple players? Designing a game requires lots of efforts and skills in drawing or developing, and this might be a concern. I would be more excited to watch a short film of this story rather than playing the game. The combination of fantasy and imaginary story is more likely to grab the audience’s attention. Shena might think about making a short film if she finds it difficult to design an online game, and of course I am one of her fan. I suggest the website for Shena to explore the RPG design, it might be useful for her to think critically and carefully in employing this technology.

  1. Zhexiong (Lynn) ’s project “Butterfly Effect”

The Presentation: Lynn presented his short film concept clearly which will be having multilinear stories. This project consists of 6 storylines following the example of the famous film “11:14”. Two points for Lynn to improve are the font size and eyes contact while pitching his ideas. It would be much better for Lynn to make the presentation becomes more interesting if he increased the font size and also reduce the text. This will be much easier for viewers to read and to fully concentrate on his presentation. There were lots of wordings, within a 3mn presentation, the audience mostly wants to listen to a short and simple message. Making eyes contact with other classmates is important to ensure that everyone is engaged with him, but during his presentation, I noticed that he seemingly looked at the lecturers only.


The proposed digital narrative: The idea of filming the multiple stories is creative and fabulous. I could imagine how the six stories link together based on the information I read on the slides. The most startling thing about the project is that Lynn is inspired to produce this film after watching many multiple stories movies, this can be beneficial for him to adapt the great techniques and also content development in terms of writing a screenplay from those award winning films.   However, I think that Lynn might have to find a way to keep audience’s attention and interest while watching the consecutive six climax points, showing all problems. The overarching goal of the film is to retain the audience’s attention and audiences do want to have a mixture of feelings including but not limited to comedy, romantic, problem while watching. Therefore, Lynn might have to deeply think about inserting different components in the scripts to provide the audience with different feelings in one film. On behalf of the audience, I would love to watch Lynn’s film by having a humor segment without conversation. He probably can incorporate the daily funny things that make people laugh uproariously.

There is a book called ‘Alternative Scriptwriting: Beyond the Hollywood Formula’ by Ken and Jeff (2013), Lynn might gain more understanding of how to creatively write the script for his short film in addition to the previous knowledge from the story, genre, and medium course.

I declare that in submitting all work for this assessment I have read, understood and agree to the content and expectations of the assessment declaration.

Pitching Presentation

This week, I am working on the pitching preparation of my digital project. My project is titled as ” The Land of Sanctity”.  The aims of this project is to raise the tourists’ awareness and to changed their disrespectful behaviour during their trip at Uluru. The reason that I selected this topic for my project is because some tourists disobey the rules at the base of the mountain of Ayers Rock not to climb. So far, 35 died when they climbed the 348 meters rock because of the steep mountain slop and difficulties. In terms of aboriginal culture, the Ayers Rock is the sacred place for Anangu aborigines representing the Dreamtime. Spiritual performance and other cultural activities are celebrated every year and the majority of tourists is genuinely curious to learn the rich culture of those aborigines. During the ritual performance in the caves, photography is prohibited due to the sensitive culture, but some tourists disregard the rule. This makes the land owners become anxious and demand for action taken by the cultural centre as well as the government to intervene.

Having learn the existing problem of the world famous monolith at Uluru, I decided to employ the 360-degree technology, which can provide the viewers with immersive experience and spectacular views by using goggles. This new technology advancement derives lots of attentions from the viewers and the producers as it can engross audience with its functions of having 360-degree footages which viewers can change to different directions while watching. As Hand explains, there are two kinds of 360-degree, one of which is monoscopic allowing you to film by simultaneously filming angles of the scenes. This is the basic filming. Another type is called Stereoscopic, which requires producers to create 3D rendering in addition to the normal 360 footage. From this understandings, I can understand that filming 360-degree video requires detail skills to use multiple cameras or cameras having multiple lenses in order to ensure the footages are recorded at the same time and easy to editing stitching.

Ribena Crisis Management

A well-known healthy drink brand, Ribena blackcurrant, was originally introduced in Britain in 1938 (Ribena 2017), manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), one of the world largest pharmaceutical companies, and distributed in 22 countries including New Zealand and Australia (Enough 2007). The Ribena products suffered an impending brand crisis in 2004 causing sale decrease and reputational damage. Two New Zealand highschool students claimed that the Ribena blackcurrant drink did not contain higher level of vitamin C four times more than oranges as advertised, but instead, it had almost no detectable vitamin C (NZherald 2007). The GSK was found guilty for 15 cases and fined up to £1.1 million (AU$ 18 million) plus corrections of their advertisement (Vasagar 2007). The case clearly shows the GSK’s failure in crisis management, leading to the brand devastation (Jaques 2008).

During the crisis management, there were two strengths that GSK could uphold its credibility and reputation. Ribena has a strong brand supported by thousands of customers (Burke 2007), it was likely that most of the public did not trust the students’ findings. The two teenagers did the experiment because they wanted to prove their hypothesis that the famous brand drink is much healthier than cheaper brands (Vasagar 2007). The other strength is that the company was able to apply an apologia strategy to handle the disastrous brand matter (Jaques 2008). By acknowledging the mistake and apologising profusely, the company reduced the customers’ anger and disappointment from the misleading content. This seems effective, but it appeared overdue resulting in irreparable brand damage.

The GSK seemingly mismanaged the remedy strategy in achieving the communication’s objectives dealing with the scandal. It lacks a proper plan to solve the adverse occurrence causing major reputational damage which was protracting and expensive. The theoretical framework from its previous experience, Ribena Toothkind criticism, and the corporate scandal handling experience could be used to prepare appropriate responses. Examples of crisis management can be learned from the abnormal level of benzene in the bottle of Perrier products (Barton 1991), and Volkswagen’s cheating information about its car low emission (Hotten 2015). Smith (2013) recommends each company develops effective strategies to be proactive rather than reactive in responding any unpredictable crises.

The GSK’s communication crisis included the dismissal of the potential early warning (Jaques 2008; Regester & Larkin 2008). The GSK’s crisis response did not recognise the early problem raised by the two teenagers (Fair Go 2004; Jaques 2008). Instead of giving them satisfactory answer and eliminating the public’s distrust of the brand, the company ignored the problem and paid little attention to the girls’ claim. The implication of the company’s inappropriate response triggered the public anger and inflicted considerable harm stumbling over the iconic brand.

Rather than acknowledging the misleading advertisement, the GSK defended its products aggressively with inconsistent messages. According to Jaques (2008), the GSK used unsuccessful three methods – protecting the parent brand, accepting the brand damage in New Zealand and Australia only, and finding different excuses to rectify the problem. When the Fair Go TV station broadcast the Ribena case, the company continued to refuse the students’ accusation (Fair Go, 2004). Their refusal to admit that they misled the public resulted in the case to be investigated by the Commerce Commission.

The GSK should have developed a well-executed communication strategy before responding to the problem. Mahoney 2017 claims that each organisation should have a strategic communication for immediate concerns, emerging problem, and long-term issue. This plan enables the organisation to tackle the problem effectively. Identifying and anticipating early problems by using comprehensive systems is also significant during the crisis incubation (Jaques 2008). This approach prepares the organisation with any upcoming incidents which can minimise the financial and reputational threat (Regester & Larkin 2008). Using public relations (PR) campaign to restore the reputation is considered to be one of the effective strategies. The GSK should have used a PR campaign including publicity events, marketing video showing the process of producing Ribena drink with emphasis on vitamin C content in the drink, and social media to rebuild customers’ confidence. The PepsiCo company used an effective PR campaign in 1993 aiming to fight against the wrong accusation of finding a syringe in the can of Diet Pepsi (Business Insider 2017).

A broader level of managing the crisis should be taken into consideration for dealing with future problems. The failure of the crisis management of Ribena case was evidenced through its legal charges by the New Zealand court and a decline of Ribena’s sales. With lessons learned, the GSK might be able to respond swiftly and decisively to manage any future crises.


Barton, L 1991, A Case Study in Crisis Management: The Perrier Recall, Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol.91, n. 7, pp.6-8.

Burke, K 2007, ‘Ribena to Withdraw Vitamin C Claim’, SMH online, 22 March 2004, viewed 17 March 2017,

Business Insider 2017, 9 PR Fiascos That Were Handled Brilliantly By Management, viewed on 23 March 2017,

Enough, O 2007, ‘New Zealand schoolgirls find there’s no C in Ribena’, Reuters, 26 March 2007,  viewed 19 March 2017,

Fair Go 2004, ‘A matter of juice’, Fair Go online, 28 October 2004, viewed 20 March 2017,

Hotten, R 2015, ‘Volkswagen: The scandal explained’, BBC online, 10 December 2015, viewed 17 March 2017,

Mahoney, J. (2017). Strategic communication: Campaign planning, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia.

NZherald 2007, ‘Ribena-maker fined $217,500 for misleading vitamin C ads’, NZherald Online, 27 March 2007, viewed 15 March 2017,

Regester, M, & Larkin, J 2008, Risk Issues and Crisis Management in Public Relations A Casebook of Best Practice, 4th edn, Kogan Page, London.

Ribena 2017, Official Website, viewed 20 March 2017,

Smith, R, D 2013, Strategic Planning for Public Relations, Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, Routledge, NY.

Vasagar, J 2007, ‘Schoolgirls rumble Ribena vitamin claims’, The Guardian, 27 March 2007, viewed 15 March 2017

Exploring Virtual Reality (VR)

This week, I learned some interesting facts and information about how to film VR video from Lynda website. By watching Ben Long’s explanation of how to produce VR video, it sounds easy, but I think it will be difficult for me as the beginner to start up. VR technique can be used to produce a documentary, game, animation video illustrating the core message of any interesting content.

Photo from this site.

The immersive video environment of VR makes viewers become more excited or amusing to consume the content. However, in some points, VR cannot create the real environment to the audience because the content and movement in VR are set by the film producer. This means the producer decides what the angles or points that viewers can see in the video, showing the affordance of the VR. Due to the modern technology, viewers can use a mobile phone to watch the extensive 360-degree video. The video will move to different directions once the users move their cameras while watching. Facebook even allows users to upload the VR video or photos which can be navigated by other users easily without having additional software. From this lesson, I understand that VR enables users and also producers to creatively narrate the story and widely capture the real environment and surrounding places.

Moving to the content of my VR video which is about cultural sensitivities at Uluru (Ayers Rock). At this stage, I am collecting the information of this problem. There are a few rules and guides for visitor when visiting Uluru.

  1. Tourists are not allowed to climb the Ayers Rock because it is a sacred place for indigenous people, but some tourists still break  the rule
  2. Tourists have to respect the culture of aborigines as stated in the guideline.

This digital media project is about the cultural sensitivities of the Red land in Uluru aiming to raise the tourists’ awareness and to change their behavior in respecting indigenous culture. This project will be produced by employing 360-degree (VR) video in order to capture the incredible landscape and explicitly explain the important acts that tourists have to respect while visiting that sacred place.


Long,  B 2016, Learning VR photography and video, Lynda, viewed on 08 August 2017, VR+Photography+and+Video%3a+The+Basics%0apage%3a 1%0as%3arelevance%0asa%3atrue%0aproducttypeid%3a2

Decision Stage

Exploring Uluru Camel has become one of the most interesting stories that I would like to produce using a VR or linear short documentary approach. At the beginning, I enthuse about the ideas of showing experience in extreme sports, but now I have changed my focus to the famous tourism site in Australia, Uluru. The main purpose of producing this project is to briefly explain the tourists to clearly understand what they should do to acknowledge the aboriginal people’s sanctity and cultural sensitivity as lonelyplanet recommends every tourist to be courteous and behave properly in order to make the most experience and memories from the spiritual land specially at Ayers Rock.

This photo is taken from this site.

Despite selecting the topic, I am now considering between VR project and a linear/conventional documentary. Since VR requires the accessibility of 360-degree camera, which might be difficult for me to get the camera because RMIT has no this camera for rent. I might have to rent from the camera shop or somewhere else. Let’s talk about the process of producing VR. I first have to clearly know the purpose of using VR and how I am going to execute it. The filmmakers can make use of VR technology to show their narratives in a unique and interesting way allowing audience to feel as similar as they are in the real situation, but some users are so disappointed with the VR experience because it is just completely opposite to what VR has been trying to upheaval itself. The audience just feels nothing when watching VR. This argumentation raises the discussion whether or not VR can function as fantastic as the advertisement and it also gives a clue to the producer to critically think before employing this technique.

Linear documentary remains my favourite although it is an old technique. Rather than selecting the new emerging –interactive documentary style, I prefer using the conventional documentary to manifest my story because it can smoothly and easily show the main theme of my film with creative ways. Normally, people want to interact with the game they are playing because they want to set the ending or the journey of the game by themselves, but in contrast they want to comfortably watch the film without distraction. For this reason, I think using linear style to illustrate my concept and also the angle of the story is the correct form. With the modern technology and camera, I also can produce a short linear documentary with great shots and editing styles which is suitable for social media.

VR Project

Photo from this site.

I have no ideas what I am going to do for NDN course. A few content come up in my mind based on my personal interest and curiosity. Sky diving, skiing, and snorkeling are adventurous games for me and I have never tried it before because I am so scared.

However, Sky diving is a fascinating game I ever want to explore as it can give me an invaluable and astonishing experience being in the air looking on the earth view especially challenging myself. This can be a short video informing other people about preparedness for any unpredictable incidents.

Photo from this site.

Ski is also another thrilling game I want to nail down. I could imagine how hard for the beginner to start playing ski in the snow and I would like to deliver the message to those who want to overcome their fear in taking up this game with proper guides.

Photo from this site.


Snorkeling is very demanding for me since I do not know how to swim properly, but let’s my experience help others to understand how to snorkel successfully and joyfully to see the underwater wildlife following different pieces of advice. I will pick up one of the three games, but the question here is what type of media form that I am going to use.

From the resources, I am so interested in VR project because it can project images greatly making viewers feel as they are in the real place by using VR glasses and headset (The headset now is widely accessible, so it is not a problem anymore). This allows me to show my story in such an amazing way. As recommended by Softonic, there are 5 apps to produce VR videos and images, one of which is using a mobile phone (cardboard camera) to capture the movement. Rob and Jonas (2016) also explain the process of making 360 video, which requires the use of many GoPro cameras to shoot 360-degree of the scene. They combined 6 GoPro cameras together to film and adjust what they want. The beginner can also use various types of cameras that are affordable, not so expensive as GoPro. Editing is also a big challenging to produce VR video since we have to ensure that each video line stitch together to create 360-degree video otherwise the final video will look ridiculous. Normally, we can use Adobe Premier Pro to edit VR footage by following 4 steps easily. I realise that VR is an interesting form of conveying my story in this digital media era and I would like to give myself a try to explore this exciting video production.

Social Media Campaign Reflection


Social media is the most influential and persuasive platforms in this contemporary environment (Quesenberry 2015). My group produced social media campaign to raise the public awareness and change their attitude in separating waste properly. Piskorski (2014) suggests that the establishment of social media strategy should consider the benefits for both customers and the organisation. For this reason, my campaign mainly prioritises the benefits that the audiences interact and engage with the campaign in receiving useful information. There are three significant points that I have learned from this campaign including collaboration in a group, incorporation of the theories and content design.


Working collaboratively as a team is critically important to achieve the campaign’s goal. There are three key points how my group worked well together – having a common goal, listening to each other and being responsible. Tabaka (2006) claims that the high-performing team comes from respect, courage, engagement, and self-organisation. As I was assigned as a team leader, I hold a meeting at the initial stage to develop the story idea and to set the goal of the campaign.

Group members were preparing to film the interview.

An inclusion of every member’s ideas into the discussion is crucial to generate topic, creativity and to empower each member in participatory decision-making. Carnoy (2016) claims that setting up a goal is important to accumulate the campaign’s reputation. For this reason, my group enthusiastically put strenuous efforts to design the strategy and tactics to achieve the goal.

My group members listened to each other’s opinion and initiatives with full attentions to incorporate into the plan. The group decided to use infographic video as Herhuth (2017) claimed that currently animation becomes more popular for aesthetic storytelling and one of my members suggested to include animation characters citing Hardianto (2013), Phare Ponleu Selpak (2014), and UNESCO (2015) as examples that produced educational infographic videos.

Highly responsible members are the driving forces to achieve satisfactory outcomes. Different tasks were divided based on the strengths and weaknesses of each member. I was mainly responsible for developing the content, and another member focused on aesthetic and technology. Ongoing discussions both in class and outside were held regularly to ensure the efficient work especially clarifying some ambiguous points. University of Sydney (2017) supports that being supportive and responsible members lead to the group’s success. This could leverage the human resources and design different approaches engaging with audiences. However, time management appears to be a weakness. My members summited the assigned task late resulted in a late posting on social media.

Content Development

I was the content developer during the campaign. Developing content creates a comprehensive foundation to develop the strategy for Facebook, Instagram, Weibo, and Blog. Content is much more important than the use of social media channels. Therefore, an extensive research was done to synthesise the key information related to recycling waste to gather a pool of content. As recommended by Schaffer (2013), content development to engage with audiences can be determined through “affinity, weight and time decay (p. 61)”, while affinity refers to the use of network to boost the content. Based on my experience, more audience interacted with my campaign content when I publicised on my personal profile with hashtags. This means my profile can uplift the greater affinity of my campaign and it is seen as an effective tactic to spread out the content. Quesenberry (2015) also points out the important of designing beneficial and entertaining content for audience, which can draw the audience’s attention.

From this idea, I designed the concept of infographic video by integrating various segments to make the audience feel amused and concurrently obtain useful information. Hemley (2013) suggests that understanding and knowing the type of content that audiences want is critically important to design an attainable strategy.

Lisa was designing the characters based on the content design.

I analysed my target audience behaviour in interacting with social media content, and I realised that most of my target audiences want to engage and interact with issues concerning to their daily lives. So, I produced short videos showing an individual correctly throws waste into the right bin in addition to images and infographic videos, which differed from my previous social media campaign (sexual assault) for CMWP in which I designed the content based on the social stigma and stereotypes. This experiment enables me to design the content that matches the audience’s needs and to disperse the communications messages efficiently as supported by Holloman (2012) arguing that utilising existing network effectively connect with audiences. The main understanding from this content development is to classify the core information of the topic and critically understand the affordance and constraint of the social media tools, so the content delivery will massively reach the audience.

Effectiveness of Theories

The practice-based theory has considerably contributed to the success of the social media campaign. The use of spreadable media becomes more valuable and accessible for audiences since they can interact, distribute or design content broadly in this contemporary media (Jenkin et al. 2014). From this experience, my social media tools are beneficial to advocate the campaign messages specially to engage with the audience, which is relevant to the theory of stickiness as supported by Jenkin et al. (2014) explaining that “stickiness broadly refers to the need to create content that attracts audience attention and engagement (p.4)”. However, stickiness appears to work well when I utilised my network on social media only. It is challenging and demanding to get people, who are not my fans, to share their experience or content with my campaign. This appears to be the limitation of stickiness.

One of my friends shared her opinion and photo regarding recycling waste.

The use of existing recycle waste information, video, and news produced by different organizations can possibly enhance the granular content of the campaign. Miles (2013) claims that a medium is regarded as highly granular if it is made up of small parts that are self-contained to the extent that they make sense by themselves (p.74)”. Citing Love9 as an example of using granularity, my group created different content and types of information consisting of mobile videos portraying positive attitudes of throwing recycle waste and images of friends committing to reuse plastic bottle. By doing this, I could increase the granularity on my Facebook page. However, granularity to a certain degree does not promote the campaign if most elements are not self-produced. This implies that granularity works well with the campaign that produces creative and various elements to enhance the content quality.


Carnoy, J 2016, 5 Tips for Running Your Best Social Media Campaign Ever, viewed on 29 May 2017,

Hardianto, P 2013, How Can I Help the Earth, Viewed on 10 March 2017

Hemley, D 2013, 26 Tips to create a strong social media content strategy, viewed 25 May 2017,

Holloman, C 2012, The Social Media MBA, John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, Hoboken.

Jenkins, HFSGJ 2014, Spreadable Media, NYU Press, New York.

Phare Ponleu Selpak 2014,  Reduce Recycle Reuse, Viewed on 10 March 2017

Piskorski, MJ 2014, A Social Strategy, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Quesenberry, KA 2015, Social Media Strategy, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Lanham, MD.

Schaffer, N 2013, Maximize Your Social, John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, Somerset.

Tabaka, J. 2006, What are Collaborative Teams?, in Collaboration Explained: Facilitation Skills for Software Project Leaders, Addison-Wesley, NJ, pp.23-43.

UNESCO 2015, Plastic Waste Never Dies, Viewed on 10 March 2017,

University of Sydney 2017, How can we make our group work well together?, viewed 12 April 2017,